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The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library: Tymshare, Inc.

Tymshare, Inc. was a well-known timesharing service and third-party hardware maintenance company throughout its history and competed with companies such as Four Phase, Compuserve, and Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, Digital). Tymshare developed or acquired innovative technologies, including data networking (Tymnet), electronic data interchange (EDI), credit card and payment processing (TTS, Western29), telecommunications provisioning (COEES), office automation (August, Augment) and database technology (Magnum). It was headquartered in Cupertino, California from 1964 to 1984. The computing platforms included the XDS 940 (Tymcom-IX), XDS Sigma 7, DEC PDP-10 models KA, KI, KL and KS (Tymcom-X/XX, Tenex, August, Tops-20), XKL Toad-1, IBM 360 & 370 (VM, MVS, GNOSIS) servers.

In 1984 Tymshare was acquired by McDonnell Douglas, restructured, split up and portions were resold, spun off, and merged with other companies from 1984 through 2004 when most of its legacy network was finally shut down. Islands of its network technology continued as part of EDI, at least into 2008. Rights to use technology developed by Tymshare is currently held by Boeing, British Telecom (BT), Verizon, and AT&T Inc. due to the acquisitions and mergers from 1984 through 2005.

Tymshare was founded in 1964 by Tom O’Rourke and Dave Schmidt as a time sharing company, selling computer time and software packages for users. It had two SDS/XDS 940 computers; access was via direct dial-up to the computers. In 1968, it purchased Dial Data, another time-sharing service bureau.

In 1968, Ann and Norm Hardy, Bill Frantz, Joe Rinde, and LaRoy Tymes developed the idea of using remote sites with minicomputers to communicate with the mainframes. The minicomputers would serve as the network's nodes, running a program called a "Supervisor" to route data. In November 1971, the first Tymnet Supervisor program became operational. Written in assembly code by LaRoy Tymes for the SDS 940, with architectural design contributions from Norman Hardy, the "Supervisor" was the beginning of the Tymnet network. The Varian 620i was also used for the TYMNET nodes. During those first years, Tymshare and its direct customers were the network's only users.

It soon became apparent that the SDS 940 could not keep up with the rapid growth of the network. In 1972, Joseph Rinde joined the Tymnet group and began porting the Supervisor code to the 32-bit Interdata 7/32, as the 8/32 was not yet ready. In 1973, the 8/32 became available, but the performance was disappointing and a crash-effort was made to develop a machine that could run Rinde's Supervisor. In 1974, a second, more efficient version of the Supervisor software became operational. The new Tymnet "Engine" software was used on both the Supervisor machines and on the nodes. After the migration to Interdata, they started developing Tymnet on the PDP-10. Tymshare sold a copy of the Tymnet network software to TRW, who created their own private network, TRWNET.

In the 1970s, Tymshare, which had used Digital Equipment's operating system TOPS-10 for its PDP-10s, began independent work on the OS for their systems, called it TYMCOM-X, and implemented a file system that supported random access, paging with working sets, and spawnable processes. The OS work was done by a group of eight people: Bill Weiher, Vance Socci, Allen Ginzburg, Karen Kolling, Art Atkinson, Gary Morgenthaler (founder of the company that produced IDRIS), Todd Corenson and Murray Bowles. Most Tymnet development was then done on TYMCOM-X.[3][4] Also in the 1970s, Tymshare acquired the Augmentation Research Center from SRI International. Tymes and Rinde then developed Tymnet II. Tymnet II ran in parallel with the original network, which continued to run on the Varian machines until it was phased out over a period of several years. Tymnet II's different method of constructing virtual circuits allowed for much better scalability.

In about 1979, Tymnet Inc. was spun off from Tymshare Inc. to continue administration and operation of the network. The network continued to grow, and customers who owned their own host computers and wanted access to them from remote sites became interested in connecting their computers to the network. This led to the foundation of Tymnet as a wholly owned subsidiary of Tymshare to run a public network as a common carrier within the United States. This allowed users to connect their host computers and terminals to the network, and use the computers from remote sites or sell time on their computers to other users of the network, with Tymnet charging them for the use of the network.

In 1984 Tymnet was bought by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation as part of the acquisition of Tymshare. The company was renamed McDonnell Douglas Tymshare, and began a major reorganization. A year later, McDonnell Douglas (MD) split Tymshare into several separate operating companies: MD Network Systems Company, MD Field Service Company, MD RCS, MD "xxx" and many more. (This is sometimes referred to the Alphabet Soup phase of the company). At this point, Tymnet had outlived its parent company Tymshare.

McDonnell Douglas acquired Microdata and created McDonnell Douglas Information Systems Group (MDISC), expecting to turn Microdata's desktop and server systems along with Tymshare's servers and Tymnet data network into a major player in the Information Services market. Microdata's systems were integrated into many parts of McDonnell Douglas, but Tymnet never was. MDC really did not seem to understand the telecommunications market. After five years, peace was breaking out in many places in the world and McDonnell Douglas sold off MDNSC and MDFSC at a profit for much needed cash.

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From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymnet :: NPD-604 Engine Family Maintainence Print Manual Apr85
Topics: gnd, dma, asc, cable, rev, document, assy, dgnd, asb, disclosure, fractions decimals, cable asc,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Reference Series Super Fortran Apr70
Topics: program, statement, file, statements, variable, data, string, format, command, fortran, super...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Super Basic Reference Manual Ver3 Feb78
Topics: print, input, file, program, super, string, statement, command, basic, variable, super basic,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Super Basic May71
Topics: print, input, file, program, super, string, statement, command, basic, variable, super basic,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: ECAP Electronic Circuit Analysis Program Nov70
Topics: ecap, circuit, command, analysis, file, user, current, output, commands, node, analysis mode,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Xexec Reference Manual Ver2 Feb78
Topics: file, command, user, files, commands, program, prints, xexec, core, control, user types, file...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Reference Series Super Basic Sep68
Topics: print, statement, program, super, string, basic, command, input, data, mat, super basic, paper...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Time-Sharing System Reference Manual Jul67
Topics: brs, file, fork, user, teletype, output, input, disc, interrupt, memory, floating point, file...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Information Management Library Nov75
Topics: file, data, user, field, description, command, rules, records, iml, record, data file, rules file,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Paper Tape Package Nov71
Topics: user, tape, file, conversion, punched, command, code, octal, confile, table, paper tape, conversion...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Genie Feb73
Topics: series, genie, command, commands, data, file, user, instructs, variable, volume, instructs genie,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: ARPAS DDT Reference
Topics: macro, symbol, symbols, ddt, program, assembler, expression, lda, location, equ, label field,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Manuals Binder Apr67
Topics: file, user, brs, command, symbol, fork, program, disc, output, memory, file directory, floating...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: history :: Kahrs
Topics: tymshare, system, berkeley, sigma, xerox, saperstein, xds, cupertino, norm, assembler, system call,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Instant Series Super Basic Oct68
Topics: program, super, print, statement, basic, input, data, command, variable, statements, super basic,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymnet :: Network Products Concepts and Facilities Jan85
Topics: network, interface, tymnet, host, supervisor, node, elf, user, concepts, slot, facilities december,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Reference Series Fortran IV Jan73
Topics: fortran, statement, data, format, integer, statements, program, variable, subprogram, array,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymnet :: Network Products Concepts and Facilities Update Jul85
Topics: interface, tymnet, sdlc, network, host, data, concepts, facilities, user, dte, sdlc interface,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Oct71
Topics: brs, file, floating, preserved, user, exec, input, status, instruction, brs manual, tymshare brs,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Reference Series SPICE Oct72
Topics: output, model, analysis, input, voltage, vin, current, statement, transient, circuit, small signal,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Addendum To Editor Jan72
Topics: command, editor, text, lines, file, user, carriage, characters, commands, append, carriage return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Dec69
Topics: file, registers, user, brs, string, descriptions, character, fork, dates, affecteds, registers...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Reference Series Addendum To Fortran IV Feb73
Topics: file, program, user, subroutine, command, fortran, cfortran, statement, format, core, main program,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: ARPAS Ref
Topics: macro, symbol, symbols, assembler, assembly, operand, endf, equ, endm, expression, label field,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Addendum To Super Fortran Jan72
Topics: fortran, super, program, user, file, command, function, batch, compatibility, link, super fortran,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX User Program Index Rev7 May74
Topics: manual, fortran, matrix, program, file, programs, analysis, function, subroutine, batch, batch...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX CSMP Continuous System Modeling Program May72
Topics: command, csmp, user, block, file, output, oooe, subroutines, blocks, integration, scratch file,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Logsim Logic Simulation Program Feb70
Topics: block, blk, circuit, clk, blocks, user, input, logical, dest, command, finish time, start time, blk...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Xexec Dec74
Topics: file, command, user, files, commands, program, prints, xexec, core, control, user types, file...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Tape Reference Manual Ver1 Feb78
Topics: tape, command, file, user, ascii, parity, octal, paper, punched, symbolic, paper tape, carriage...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Sep70
Topics: registers, user, file, brs, exec, character, floating, skip, pointer, teletype, file directory,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Manual For The Time-Sharing Executive Apr67
Topics: command, user, commands, file, exec, tss, memory, operator, teletype, files, commands require,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Reference Series Retrieve A Management Information Retrieval System Aug71
Topics: data, base, command, records, retrieve, file, user, field, append, total, data base, nuclear...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Operations Manual Jan67
Topics: file, user, tape, disc, crlf, command, overflow, system, program, error, file directory, crashed...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Reference Series Addendum To Retrieve Jan74
Topics: user, expenses, field, retrieve, data, employee, chamberlain, subtotals, records, skane, data base,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX To Tymcom-X Fortran Conversion Documents
Topics: program, statements, file, fortran, tymcom, flagged, variable, functions, subroutine, flags, super...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Reference Series FORTRAN IV Sep1968
Topics: statement, program, fortran, statements, data, format, variable, user, command, integer, field...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Executive Reference Manual May76
Topics: file, command, user, files, commands, program, directory, sym, terminal, deferred, terminal output,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare and Files Memo
Topics: files, file, tymshare, user, program, binary, data, proprietary, cipher, execution, binary files,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Statpak Preliminary Manual Sep72
Topics: user, column, statpak, data, command, variable, regression, matrix, prompts, values, statpak...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X Statpak Feb72
Topics: variable, user, enter, data, observations, module, statpak, program, file, regression, statpak...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Business Management Library Apr71
Topics: user, program, data, enter, file, dep, prints, entered, cash, depreciation, user types, cash flows,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: NARP Ref
Topics: opd, macro, symbol, narp, string, defined, opcode, symbols, operand, expression, label field,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Logmin Logic Map Minimization Program Jan70
Topics: input, map, program, variables, logical, file, compute, data, boolean, minimized, map position, map...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Mar67
Topics: brs, registers, user, string, calling, file, lda, input, teletype, return, user calling, normal...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: DDT Ref
Topics: ddt, symbol, command, commands, typed, contents, symbols, expression, program, carriage return,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Editor Reference Manual Ver1 Feb78
Topics: text, editor, control, command, lines, user, characters, prints, edit, buffer, control characters,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: CAL Ref
Topics: cal, type, command, form, step, program, file, commands, logical, expression, step number, monthly...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Easyplot All Purpose Plotting Jul70
Topics: data, easyplot, command, commands, axis, execute, scale, program, dsl, file, reference point, data...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Technical Notes Number 7 Feb69
Topics: file, directory, user, status, files, account, brs, gfd, commands, types, file directory, account...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Reference Series Executive Jan71
Topics: file, command, user, files, tymshare, directory, program, commands, terminal, programs, file...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Random Files Memo Nov68
Topics: file, cbof, ceof, user, syspops, set, bio, brss, wio, mode, sign bit, random files, privilege mask,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Statpak Reference Manual Ver1 Aug77
Topics: user, column, statpak, data, command, variable, regression, matrix, prompts, values, statpak...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Instant Series Super BASIC Oct1968
Topics: program, super, print, statement, basic, input, data, command, variable, statements, super basic,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: Tymcom-X User Program Index Rev11 May77
Topics: subroutine, program, upl, iii, programs, fortran, intel, tymshare, nsc, bso, intel upl, program...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Tymshare Reference Series Super Basic Apr69
Topics: print, program, statement, super, string, basic, input, command, statements, data, super basic,...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: Random File OS Spec Series F Apr69
Topics: file, files, random, directory, privileges, syspop, cptop, specifications, cursor, data, random...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-x :: TYMCOM X PASCAL Users Manual Dec1978
Topics: pascal, program, file, manual, integer, parameters, parameter, output, input, compiler, external...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: tymcom-ix :: Tymcom-IX Instant Series Editor Ver1 Feb78
Topics: user, text, editor, control, command, characters, prints, edit, lines, character, control...
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Aug67
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. tymshare :: SDS 940 :: BRS Reference Nov67